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IPL (Intense Pulsed light)beauty machine- Professional Introduction

Among all beauty equipment, the IPL machine seems to be easy, but it is actually one of the most difficult equipment to operate. The operator needs to have an in-depth understanding of the machine itself, skin problems, and the structure of the skin in order to be able to master it correctly.

The function of the IPL machine is powerful, but when we use the IPL machine, we will encounter many different problems. So what knowledge should we need to know about the IPL machine to better operate the machine and make effective treatment effects?

First of all , we need to understand the meaning of these professional terms:

Thermal relaxation time(TRT):

When the target tissue absorbs the light energy, the temperature must rise, and heat conduction must also occur to the surrounding adjacent tissue.The process of heat conduction from the “heat” of the target tissue to the surrounding tissue is thermal relaxation,and the measurement of the speed of thermal relaxation is the thermal relaxation time.

The thermal relaxation time is the time required for the target to cool down significantly (by half the temperature).

Formula: tr=d²/(4k)

(Tr=thermal relaxation time, d=penetration depth of the laser, k=the dispersion of heat )

Pulse Width:

 The time of pulse emission is also called pulse width.The pulse width is the time when the handle emits light. The shorter the pulse width is, the energy is released in a shorter time, and the force of the blow will be relatively stronger, which is generally suitable for light-colored spots on the epidermis.For blood vessels, the pulse width should be long, so the blood vessels can absorb light to reach the coagulation threshold. The same goes for hair removal.In addition, the adjustment of the pulse width also depends on the skin color of the person. For people with fair skin, the pulse width can be short, and for people with dark skin, the pulse width should be relatively wider. Otherwise pigmentation will form.

The pulse width should be less than or equal to the cooling time of the chromophore, so that the energy is confined in the target tissue without heat conduction;otherwise, the heat will be conducted to the surrounding tissue and cause greater damage than the target tissue.

Pulse delay:

Pulse delay:the delay time between two pulses.The emission of intense pulsed light often divides the energy into two pulses, three pulses or five pulses and emits it. In the interval stage of pulse emission, it is the pulse delay. Because the treatment head has a strong cooling effect, it is equivalent to cooling the epidermis during this period to protect the epidermis from being scalded, so the pulse delay time is to reduce side effects. The darker the skin tone, the longer the pulse delay.
The pulse delay, which is less than the cooling time of the chromophore, is greater than or equal to the cooling time of the epidermis, so that the temperature of the target tissue is increased, and the epidermis has enough cooling time to keep the temperature within a safe range.

Number of pulses: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 can be selected

Pulse1(the first pulse width): When single pulse is used, the time it takes is regarded as the pulse width, when multi-pulse is used, it’ width is the first pulse width. Adjust range (2-20ms).

Delay1(the first pulse delay): The interval between the first pulse and the second pulse, range (2-60ms),

Pulse2:The second pulse width range (Adjust range :2-20ms),

Delay2: the second pulse delay,(Adjust range :2-60ms),

Repeat pulse width: Repeat pulse (pulse3 and late pulse) width won’t be shown when using single pulse, range (2-20ms), when increasing a pulse its pulse delay should be increased by 0.1ms

Energy density

Energy density refers to the energy absorbed instantly by skin tissue, which is also the total energy of light acting on tissue per cm², in unit J/cm².

In the treatment of IPL machine, the energy density is one of the important factors that determine the treatment effect, and it is also one of the factors of complications.

The larger the target tissue area of the skin, the greater the energy required for it.

Target chromophore:

The principle of IPL machine is the theory of selective photothermal action. Light with a specific wavelength and a certain intensity acts directly on the target tissue, and the light is absorbed by the target chromophore (such as melanin, hemoglobin, water, etc.) in the tissue, thus destroying the target tissue.

It can be seen from this curve that the absorption curve of melanin gradually decreases from 400nm; the absorption curve of hemoglobin has a peak at 430nm, and then has two peaks at 543/577nm, then begins to decline, and a small peak appears after 900nm.  The absorption curve of water gradually increased after 900 nm.
Skin diseases that can be treated by light mainly contain the above three target chromophores. Without these three target chromophores, phototherapy is basically ineffective.

Now that we understand these professional terms, we have a preliminary understanding of the light of the IPL machine. In order for light to have a therapeutic effect, it needs light of a specific wavelength, a specific pulse width, a specific delay, and accurate energy, so that it can effectively act on the target tissue without harming the surrounding tissue,so as to have an effective therapeutic effect.

We know about light, and we also need to know about our skin to make treatment more precise.

Skin thickness: The effective penetration depth of intense pulsed light is about 0.5-2.6mm, and the average skin thickness of each part of the face is as follows:

Nasal root0.1440.324

Classification of skin

Skin TypeSkin colorReaction to UV light
ILightAlways burns, never tans
IIFairUsually burns,tans minimally
IIIMediumSometimes mild burn,tans uniformly
IVModerate brownBurns minimally, always tans well
VDark brownVery rarely burns, tans very easily
VIVery dark brownNever burns

Treatment items and parameters

(the following parameters are for reference only, in case of special cases, you can consult the manufacturer)

Case 1: Pigmentation removal

First treatment: filter selection: 530nm, Double pulse recommended

ParameterIII SkinIV Skin
Pulse width 1(ms)4.5-54.8-5.3
Pulse width 2(ms)7.5-87.8-8.3
Pulse delay(ms)3030

Scan the treatment area once, pause for 2-4 minutes, and then intensify the scan for a second time. At this time, the parameters are adjusted: the number of pulses is adjusted to: 3,the energy is reduced 1-2 (J/CM2).

Mode 1
T1=5,  T2=8
Energy: 24J
T1: 5ms, T2: 8ms
Treatment:5 treatments

Case 2: thread vein removal

First treatment: filter selection: 590nm, Double pulse recommended.

ParameterIII skinIV skin
Pulse width 1(ms)6.0-6.56.4-6.9
Pulse width 2(ms)9.0-9.59.3-9.8
Pulse delay 1(ms)2525

Scan the treatment area once, pause for 2-4 minutes, and then scan the area where the blood vessels are obviously dilated for a second time. At this time, the parameters are adjusted: the energy is reduced by 1-2 (J/CM2).

5 times
Filter: 590 -1200nm
Energy: 20J
T1: 6.5ms, T2: 9.5ms
Treatment: 5 treatments 

Case 3:Hair removal

First treatment: filter selection: 690nm, three pulses recommended.

ParameterIII skinIV skin
Pulse width 1(ms)5.8-6.36.0-6.5
Pulse width 2(ms)9.5-109.7-10.2
Pulse width 3(ms)9.5-109.7-10.2
Pulse delay 1(ms)2525
Pulse delay 2(ms)2525

Scan the treatment area once, pause for 2-4 minutes, and then intensify the scan for a second time. At this time, the parameters are adjusted: the energy is reduced 1-2 (J/CM2).

3 times
Mode 2
T1=6  T2=10
3 times
Filter: 690 -1200nm
Energy: 26J
T1: 6ms, T2: 10ms
Treatment:3 treatments

The IPL project is a professional treatment project, please choose a professional institution for it! At the same time, the IPL machine is a professional equipment, please operate it by qualified personnel.

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